It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). But it was English politician Charles Latrobe who really penned the following: "... look at their works: the moles, aqueducts, churches, roads—and the luxurious City of Palaces which has risen from the clay-builts ruins of Tenochtitlan...", on page 84 of the Letter V of The Rambler in Mexico.
The counting system "fell" because coincidentally the light went out and suddenly, when it returned, the winning candidate was Salinas, even though Cárdenas had the upper hand. These cultures developed complex societies, reached high levels of technological evolution, built monumental constructions, and shared many cultural concepts. Discontent over the election eventually led Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas to become the first elected mayor of Mexico City in 1997. Within this vulnerable watershed all the native fishes were extinct by the end of the 20th century. Permanent exhibits include those on the Holocaust and other large-scale atrocities. In the mid-1850s, potable groundwater was found underneath the city itself, which motivated the large-scale drilling of wells.
, Tlatilco was a large pre-Columbian village and culture in the Valley of Mexico situated near the modern-day town of the same name in the Mexican Federal District.  By the 12th century CE, various ethnicities inhabited the valley.  With a population of approximately 19.8 million inhabitants (2008), it is one of the most populous conurbations in the world. Estimates are as high as 700,000 U.S. Americans living in Mexico City, while in 1999 the U.S. Bureau of Consular Affairs estimated over 440,000 Americans lived in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Mexico City has three zoos.
Jack Kerouac, the noted American author, spent extended periods of time in the city, and wrote his masterpiece volume of poetry Mexico City Blues here.  Despite the cleanup, the metropolitan area is still the most ozone-polluted part of the country, with ozone levels 2.5 times beyond WHO-defined safe limits.
Many of the basins were once sites of major lakes that were drained to facilitate European and mestizo settlement.  The valley runs north–south for about 35 km surrounded by mountains, the most imposing of which is the Nevado de Toluca Volcano.  The area has a rainy and dry season with the rainy season extending from mid May to mid October. About 3.5 million visitors come annually, mostly from Mexico. Citlaltépetl (Orizaba Peak), the highest point in Mexico, located in western Veracruz state. However, the last straw may have been the controversial elections of 1988. This season is subdivided into a cold winter period and a warm spring period. While in 2003, the program still restricted 40% of vehicles in the metropolitan area, with the adoption of stricter emissions standards in 2001 and 2006, in practice, these days most vehicles are exempt from the circulation restrictions as long as they pass regular emissions tests. November, 1519 – Montezuma Arrested", "Conquistadors – Cortés. , Tensions increased until, on the night of 30 June 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. In 2016, the SVBUS express bus service was launched, with limited stops and utilizing the city's toll roads on the second-level of the Periférico ring road and Supervía Poniente and connecting Toreo/Cuatro Caminos with Santa Fe, San Jerónimo Lídice and Tepepan near Xochimilco in the southeast. Since then, the whole Federal District, whose delegaciones had by then almost formed a single urban area, began to be considered de facto a synonym of Mexico City. Three Nobel laureates, several Mexican entrepreneurs and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. XEQ 9, The rapid change has led to environmental degradation. 1440 - Montezuma I becomes leader of the Aztecs and expands the Aztec Empire. The Post-Classic period, from 900 A.D. to the arrival of the Spaniards in the early 1500s, was characterized by city-states and greater emphasis on war and sacrifice.  Today, the Valley drains through a series of artificial canals to the Tula River, and eventually the Pánuco River and the Gulf of Mexico. , Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. It was then classified as a major chiefdom center.  However, the precise dating of these artifacts has been disputed. When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. Until the 16th century it was dominated by a large salt lake (Lake Texcoco). Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations , including Teotihuacan , the Toltec , and the Aztec .
The lower region of the valley receives less rainfall than the upper regions of the south; the lower boroughs of Iztapalapa, Iztacalco, Venustiano Carranza and the east portion of Gustavo A. Madero are usually drier and warmer than the upper southern boroughs of Tlalpan and Milpa Alta, a mountainous region of pine and oak trees known as the range of Ajusco. Its important venues in Mexico City include the Azteca Stadium, home to the Mexico national football team and giants América, which can seat 91,653 fans, making it the biggest stadium in Latin America. Tláhuac (pop. Nonetheless, the annual rate of growth of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is much lower than that of other large urban agglomerations in Mexico, a phenomenon most likely attributable to the environmental policy of decentralization. The effects of the draining of Lake Texcoco and global warming have greatly reduced snowfalls after the snow flurries of 12 February 1907.
These are small shops offering basics such as soft drinks, packaged snacks, canned goods and dairy products.  Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the world. Human remains and artifacts such as obsidian blades have been found at the Tlapacoya site that have been dated as far back as 20,000 BC, when the valley was semi-arid and contained species like camels, bison and horses that could be hunted by man. Cultural anthropologists and archaeologists mainly use the term Mesoamerica, but it is handy for visitors to Mexico to be familiar with it when trying to grasp an understanding of how Mexico developed over time and the different ancient civilizations that originated here. There are a multitude of venues hosting Spanish and foreign-language performers. Heads of government are elected for a six-year period without the possibility of re-election.  Mexico City alone would rank as the 30th largest economy in the world. The Historic center of Mexico City (Centro Histórico) and the "floating gardens" of Xochimilco in the southern borough have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Mexico City is home of the Mexico City Red Devils of the Mexican League, which is considered a Triple-A league by Major League Baseball. ), and was officially renamed "Ciudad de México" (or "CDMX"). Having been capital of a vast pre-Hispanic empire, and also the capital of richest viceroyalty within the Spanish Empire (ruling over a vast territory in the Americas and Spanish West Indies), and, finally, the capital of the United Mexican States, Mexico City has a rich history of artistic expression. The historic district is also roamed by tourist police, aiming to orient and serve tourists. Other local television channels include: XHDF 1 (Azteca Uno),  Since the latter half of the 20th century more than 10,000 hectares of forests have disappeared, with another 10,000 decimated from their former high density. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centers in the Americas. From 1980 to 1981 and again from 2002 to 2007, the circuit hosted the Champ Car World Series Gran Premio de México. It also regularly hosts small but important temporary exhibits of classical and modern art (e.g. The snowcapped peak of the volcano Iztaccíhuatl overlooking harvested corn in the agricultural region of Puebla state in the Mesa Central of Mexico. A major labor draft, the desagüe, compelled thousands of Indians over the colonial period to work on infrastructure to prevent flooding. It was one of the first significant population centers to arise in the valley, flourishing on the western shore of Lake Texcoco during the Middle Pre-Classic period, between 1200 BC and 200 BC. By draining the area, the mosquito population dropped as did the frequency of the diseases they spread. Lucha libre is a Mexican style of wrestling, and is one of the more popular sports throughout the country.  The most significant climatic phenomena here is "thermal inversion," which is prevalent in the winter months when the cooler air of the valley is trapped by relatively warmer air above.  This valley has no natural drainage outlet for the waters that flow from the mountainsides, making the city vulnerable to flooding. , Another major addition to the city's museum scene is the Museum of Remembrance and Tolerance (Museo de la Memoria y Tolerancia), inaugurated in early 2011. There are also other early sites such as those in Tepexpan, Los Reyes Acozac, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Chimalhuacán and Los Reyes La Paz but they remain undated. 4. , Long before the arrival of the Spanish, the lake system had been shrinking due to climate change. In the late 1970s many arterial roads were redesigned as ejes viales; high-volume one-way roads that cross, in theory, Mexico City proper from side to side.  Generally speaking, humans in Mesoamerica, including central Mexico, began to leave a hunter-gatherer existence in favor of agriculture sometime between the end of the Pleistocene epoch and the beginning of the Holocene. Colonial Spanish cities were constructed on a grid pattern, if no geographical obstacle prevented it. , The concept of nobility flourished in New Spain in a way not seen in other parts of the Americas. ", In 2016, the incidence of femicides was 3.2 per 100 000 inhabitants, the national average being 4.2. In contrast, the boroughs of Xochimilco (172nd), Tláhuac (177th), and Iztapalapa (183rd) presented the lowest HDI values of Mexico City, with values of 0.8481, 0.8473, and 0.8464, respectively, which are still in the global high-HDI range.  There is an estimated yearly deficit of between 56 and 89 million cubic liters of water, which has caused the disappearance of springs in Almoloya del Río, Alta Empresa and Ameyalco and even dry spots in the Lerma River in the dry season. It is this tremendous cultural and economic diversity, distributed over an enormously complex and varied physical environment, that gives Mexico its unique character. This area did not include the population centers of the towns of Coyoacán, Xochimilco, Mexicaltzingo and Tlalpan, all of which remained as part of the State of Mexico.. Every major neighborhood in the city has its own borough-regulated market, often more than one. The main venues in the city are Arena México and Arena Coliseo.
The idea of opening drainage canals first came about after a flood of the colonial city in 1555.  The former Aztec empire became the audencia of Mexico; it was centered on Mexico City and expanded over the Toluca Valley, and further south and west into the modern states of Guerrero and Morelos. Double parking is common (with franeleros moving the cars as required), impeding on the available lanes for traffic to pass. "viene vienes" (lit. , Desiccation has had a major environmental impact on the Valley of Mexico.. This section of the valley in particular is colloquially referred to as the "Valley of Mexico". Mexico’s urban growing pains are in sharp counterpoint to the traditional lifestyles that prevail in more-isolated rural areas.
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