While exclusion of evidence is appropriate if there is a constitutional violation by the government, the government should not be placed in a worse position by excluding the evidence that would have ultimately been found by other lawful means. The police informed respondent's counsel that they would drive respondent back to Des Moines without questioning him, but during the trip one of the officers began a conversation with respondent that ultimately resulted in his making incriminating statements and directing the officers to the child's body. The U.S. Supreme court reversed the Court of Appeals. The Court thus pointedly negated the kind of good faith requirement advanced by the Court of Appeals in reversing the District Court. at 34. There. If, in the long run, we are seriously concerned about the individual's effective representation by counsel, the State cannot be permitted to dishonor its promise to this lawyer.". The constitutional violation that gave rise to the decision in Williams I is neither acknowledged nor fairly explained in the Court's opinion. 585, 587 (1926)), is entirely beside the point. See, e.g., Strickland v. Washington, 466 U. S. 668, 466 U. S. 685-687 (1984); United States v. Cronic, 466 U. S. 648, 466 U. S. 655-657 (1984); Polk County v. Dodson, 454 U. S. 312, 454 U. S. 318 (1981); Herring v. New York, 422 U. S. 853, 422 U. S. 862 (1975); Anders v. California, 386 U. S. 738, 386 U. S. 743 (1967). See generally, e.g., Stone v. Powell, 428 U.S. at 428 U. S. 484; United States v. Janis, 428 U. S. 433, 428 U. S. 443, n. 12 (1976), United States v. Calandra, 414 U. S. 338, 414 U. S. 347-348 (1974); Terry v. Ohio, 392 U. S. 1, 392 U. S. 29 (1968); Tehan v. United States ex rel. The uncertainty as to whether the body would. We are unwilling to impose added burdens on the already difficult task of proving guilt in criminal cases by enlarging the barrier to placing evidence of unquestioned truth before juries. Justia Annotations is a forum for attorneys to summarize, comment on, and analyze case law published on our site. There can be no denying that the character of the crime may have an impact on the decisional process. at 360 U. S. 327 (Stewart, J., concurring, joined by Douglas and BRENNAN, JJ.). The jury found Williams guilty of first-degree murder; the judgment of conviction was affirmed by the Iowa Supreme Court. Williams contends that, when those interests are at stake, the societal costs of excluding evidence obtained from responses presumed involuntary are irrelevant in determining whether such evidence should be excluded. The violation was aggravated by the fact that Detective Leaming had breached a promise to counsel, an act which can only undermine the role of counsel in the adversarial process. United States v. Crews, 445 U. S. 463, 445 U. S. 471 (1980) (emphasis added). [Footnote 7]. In US law, the independent source doctrine is an exception to the exclusionary rule. Pp. In Nix, the Court ruled that evidence that would inevitably have been discovered by law enforcement through legal means remained admissible.
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