A strong economy benefited from a robust transit trade and a diverse ecosystem that could accommodate a range of activities, including camel breeding at the edge of the Kavir (desert) in the villages of Ārān and Bidgol, winemaking by the sizable local Jewish community using grapes from the nearby slopes, a thriving textile and silk industry supported by local mulberry trees, and a thriving ceramic industry that benefited from a rare combination of local minerals, most notably cobalt (lājvard-e solaymāni) and white clay (sang-e qamṣari). 1228-30), two years after the execution of his patron, the enlightened Indian prince philosopher Dārā Šokuh. Abdolrezaq was arrested, and his property was confiscated. Aḥmad Kasravi, Tāriḵ-e hejdah-sāla-ye Āzarbayjān, Tehran, 1977. A period of tenuous security under the rule of Karim Khan Zand (r. 1751-79) was disturbed by the rebellion of Karim Khan’s half-brother Zaki Khan Zand, causing considerable destruction to Kashan. 609-10). Nāder Shah also appointed an independent governor for Qom and Kashan, possibly with the intention of exclusively assigning the city’s tax income for rebuilding efforts. François Sanson, Voyage ou Etat present du Royaume de Perse, Paris, 1694; tr. In addition to the aforementioned high level court officials, the Ḡaffāri family also produced a remarkable number of historians and iconic artists, among them the 18th-century Zand official, painter, and historian Abu’l-Ḥasan Mostawfi, his great nephew the renowned Qajar painters, Abu’l-Ḥasan Khan Saniʿ-al-Molk, his son Yaḥyā Khan, and his nephew Moḥammad Kamāl-al-Molk Ḡaffāri. This led to Kashan's seizure by Naeb Hossein Kashi and his sons, who usurped power after the Constitutional Revolution and ruled until 1919, when the mutineers were executed.This was the last sorrowful event in Kashan's history. Its industrious people made Kashan prosperous, which also benefited the Jewish inhabitants. and expanded, Vladimir Minorsky, as Ḥodūd al-ʿālam: The Regions of the World: A Persian Geography 372 A.H.–982 A.D., ed. Early Islamic PeriodAn interesting story is connected with the Arab conquest of Kashan in the 7th century. Early geographers such as Yaʿqubi (d. 891) and Ebn Rosta (d. after 903), a native of Isfahan, only refer to the surrounding villages and townships (Yaʿqubi, p. 275; Ebn Rosta, tr., pp. With. Today Maranjab and the surrounding Shifting Sands is a visitor destination at the weekends for safaris. Moḥammad Dabirsiāqi, Tehran, 1957; tr. Tomb of Pirouz Nahavandi is not far from Fin Garden, Biglari, F. (2004) The Preliminary Survey of Paleolithic Sites in the Kashan region., In S.M. While some of them have been transformed into hotels and guest houses, many of them are open to the visitor.
On each occasion the governors resorted to heavy-handed methods such as public execution of luṭi leaders to restore order. However, when Nader was killed, Afghans and Uzbeks again attacked and plundered Kashan.During Karim Khan Zand's rule, Kashan was governed by Muez aI-Din Mohammad Ghaffari and then by his son-in-law, Abdolrezaq Khan Kashi. A variety of forbidden pleasures persisted under the pious surface of the Dār al-moʾmenin. The town's carpet factories and workshops, where silks and other fabrics were woven, attained the peak of their prosperity during this period. Elaborate festive bashes in Kashan’s main square, including polo, wrestling, fantastic fireworks, and a variety of animal fights, sparked much excitement among the populace and at times led to fierce communal clashes (Eskandar Beg, p. 1111, tr., p. 537; Rajabi, pp. Masʿud Sālur and Iraj Afšār, II, Tehran, 1997. The nearby town of Niasar features a man-made cave and fireplace of historical interest. In 1747, soon after Nāder Shah’s assassination, the city and its hinterland sustained further damage during the campaign of the Afghan chief Allāhyār Khan Ozbak (Perry, p. 14; Rostam-al-Ḥokamāʾ,pp. The rise of the Safavids meant that Kashan was transformed from a Shiʿi minority center to one favored by a Shiʿi state.
During his rule, a number of buildings around Qohrud and in a district named Safi Abad after him were constructed.Shah Safi spent most of his leisure time in Kashan and died there. Despite an organized local resistance during a bloody four-month siege, and the assailants’ promises for safety of the residents, a widespread pillage ensued. He was a leading and defiant Noqṭawi figure who had earlier received a decree from the Mughal emperor, Jalāl-al-Din Akbar I (r. 1556-1605). Like their medieval counterparts, local Qajar notables and merchants were critical in the development of Kashan’s urban scene. When he and his son lost this authority, they increasingly engaged in banditry, looting, and the abduction of women in Kashan and its hinterland. According to a sixteenth-century observer, the town’s puritan work ethics did not tolerate “an idle person” and children as young as five years old were “set to some labor” (Lionel Plumtree, cited in Christensen, p. 153). 1170-81; Hedāyat, 1937, pp. 525-26; Hendušāh, p. 301; Lambton, p. 248; Bausani, pp. The early years of the reign of Moḥammad Shah (r. 1834-48) were preceded by a war of succession, during which Kashan became the scene of rising factional conflict involving local notables and outlaw bands. In addition to farming, the qanāt, combined with the ice pit (yaḵčāl), an evaporative cooling system consisting of an above grade conic structure and subterranean cavity to produce ice in the winter and store for use in the summer, provided a year-round steady flow of safe drinking water. In modern Persian, the word for a tile (kashi) comes from the name of the town.
His tomb is one of Kashan's conspicuous landmarks (see gallery below). The Jewish community in particular experienced a period of freedom and cultural florescence (Narāqi, 1966, pp. at universities of Kashan. GooԀ ѡay of describing, ɑnd nice post to obtaіn facts concerning my presentation focus, whioch і am going to deliver іn school. Omissions? During his rule, a number of buildings around Qohrud and in a district named Safi Abad after him were constructed.Shah Safi spent most of his leisure time in Kashan and died there. These houses represent an unparalleled and valuable Iranian architecture that has kept their identity and color in their time and place. (Sialk,pp194-195). 336-39, 371-73; for details, see FATḤ-ʿALI SHAH QĀJĀR).
History to the Pahlavi Period, KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (2) HISTORICAL MONUMENTS, KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (3) TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE, KASHAN v. ARCHITECTURE (4) HISTORIC MANSIONS, KASHAN viii. ), The Silversmiths of Sialk (Sialk Reconsideration Project), Report No. Michael J. de Goeje, Leiden, 1967; tr. In 1911, the popular preacher poet Faḵr-al-Wāʿeẓin Sayyed Aḥmad Ḵāvari Kāšāni founded one of Iran’s first satirical journals, Mizān, in Kāšān (Browne, 1914, pp. Although many arguments have been presented on behalf of each of these derivations, none can be considered irrefutable. Ebn Ḥawqal, Ketāb ṣurat al-arż, ed.
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